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Cardiology, Angiology

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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection

A breach in the integrity of the aortic wall allows arterial blood to enter the media, which is then split into two layers, creating a “false lumen“ alongside the existing or “true lumen“. The primary event is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima of the aorta. Disease of the aorta and hypertension are the most important aetiological factors. The aortic dissection is a relatively rare condition, but it may rupture and have fatal consequences. The case report describes a dissection of the descending aorta in a 55-year-old patient.

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author: Katarína Demková, Jana Grofčíková | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | published on: 1.1.2018 | last modified on: 30.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Posterior wall myocardial infarction

Posterior wall myocardial infarction

Isolated posterior myocardial infarction is occurring in 3-11% of all infarctions. ST - segment depression in leads V1-V3 suggests myocardial ischaemia, especially when the terminal T - wave is positive (ST - segment elevation equivalent), and confirmation by concomitant ST-segment elevation ≥ 0,5mm recorded in leads V7-V9 should be considered as a mean to identify posterior myocardial infarction. Emergent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention of the infarct - related artery is indicated.

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author: Marianna Vachalcová | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | published on: 8.12.2017 | last modified on: 30.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Cardiac tamponade due to cardiac metastases

Cardiac tamponade due to cardiac metastases

Cardiac tamponade is a clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of fluid or gas in the pericardial space, resulting in reduced ventricular filling and therefore decreased cardiac output (Figure 1). The condition is a medical emergency with resultant cardiogenic shock and death if not treated immediately. The presented case report describes a 63-year-old oncological patient who developed cardiac tamponade with the need of pericardiocentesis.

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author: Ivana Trojová | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | published on: 4.12.2017 | last modified on: 30.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Parainfectious myocarditis

Parainfectious myocarditis

Myocarditis is an acute inflammatory condition that can have an infectious, toxic or autoimmune aetiology. Myocarditis can complicate many infections in which inflammation may be due directly to infection of the myocardium or the effects of circulating toxins. The clinical picture ranges from a symptomless disorder, sometimes recognised by the presence of an inappropriate tachycardia or abnormal ECG, to fulminant heart failure. Myocarditis may be heralded by an influenza-like illness. In most patients, the disease is self-limiting and the immediate prognosis is excellent. However, death may occur due to a ventricular arrhythmia or rapidly progressive heart failure. Myocarditis has been reported as a cause of sudden and unexpected death in young athletes. Some forms of myocarditis may lead to chronic low-grade myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy. The case report describes a case of parainfectious myocarditis in a 20-year-old patient.

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author: Katarína Demková | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | published on: 2.1.2018 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Ascending aorta replacement and repair of aortic valve because of ascending aorta aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve with regurgitation

Ascending aorta replacement and repair of aortic valve because of ascending aorta aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve with regurgitation

The case report describes the hospitalization of a patient with an ascending aortic aneurysm and a bicuspidal aortic valve. Valvular surgery with an annular annuloplasty ring implant was performed. At the same time, replacement of the ascending aorta was performed. There were no more serious complications in the postoperative period and the patient was released to outpatient care on the eighth postoperative day.

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author: Tomáš Toporcer | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Surgery, Traumatology and Orthopaedics | published on: 22.11.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Mitral valve replacement and MAZE procedure because of mitral valve stenosis and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

Mitral valve replacement and MAZE procedure because of mitral valve stenosis and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

The case report describes the hospitalization of a 63-year-old patient admitted to the Department of heart surgery for mitral valve stenosis with diagnosed atrial fibrillation. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement and MAZE procedure. At the postoperative period, paroxysm of atrial fibrillation was successfully detected with a successful version. On the tenth postoperative day, the patient was placed in outpatient care.

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author: Tomáš Toporcer | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Surgery, Traumatology and Orthopaedics | published on: 22.11.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Constrictive pericarditis, reoperation

Constrictive pericarditis, reoperation

The case report describes the hospitalization of a 50-year-old man who underwent surgery for a constrictive pericarditis at a younger age. Current CT and ultrasonographic findings confirmed the recurrence of this disease. Partial pericardectomy was performed with the release of the left ventricular diaphragm wall in particular. The postoperative period was complicated by ventricular fibrillation with high speed response of chambers. After successful cardioversion, the patient was released to outpatient care on the seventh postoperative day.

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author: Tomáš Toporcer | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Surgery, Traumatology and Orthopaedics | published on: 22.11.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Aortocoronary bypass

Aortocoronary bypass

The case report describes the hospitalization of a 58 year old male admitted to our department for documented ischemic heart disease with affection of three coronary arteries. The patient underwent a cardiac surgery with the formation of one bypass with arterial graft and one bypass with venous graft. In the postoperative period, fibrillation of atrial fibrillation with successful cardioversion was noted. The patient was admitted to outpatient care on the seventh postoperative day.

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author: Tomáš Toporcer | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Surgery, Traumatology and Orthopaedics | published on: 22.11.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Mitral valve reconstruction because of Barlow's disease with mitral insufficiency, perioperative SAM (systolic anterior motion)

Mitral valve reconstruction because of Barlow's disease with mitral insufficiency, perioperative SAM (systolic anterior motion)

The case report describes the hospitalization of a 26 year old male with M. Barlow. The mitral valvuloplasty was performed. However, the peroperative ultrasonographic finding documented prolapse of the anterior cusp of the mitral valve into the outflow tract of left ventricle. The surgery was supplemented with a suture of the A2-PA segments of mitral valve. The subsequent finding was satisfactory. No more serious postoperative complications were noted. The patient was admitted to outpatient care on the eighth postoperative day.

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author: Tomáš Toporcer | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Surgery, Traumatology and Orthopaedics | published on: 22.11.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Aortic valve replacement because of aortic valve stenosis, repair of tricuspid valve because of regurgitation

Aortic valve replacement because of aortic valve stenosis, repair of tricuspid valve because of regurgitation

The case study describes the hospitalization of women with aortic valve stenosis and secondary regurgitation of the tricuspid valve. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement by bioprosthesis and repair surgery of the tricuspid valve. The postoperative course was complicated by pneumohorax on the right side. Drainage was performed. The patient was placed in outpatient care on the eighth postoperative day.

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author: Tomáš Toporcer | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Surgery, Traumatology and Orthopaedics | published on: 22.11.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License