Multimedia

Home mechanical ventilation in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Author: Ivana Paraničová

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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a hereditary progressive neuromuscular disorder that is inherited in X-linked recessive pattern. Mutation of dystrophin gene results into a loss of integrity and function of muscular fibres and their replacement by adipose and connective tissue. Muscle degeneration leads to motoric impairment and loss of walk around 12th year of age. Myocardium is also frequently affected. Respiratory muscles impairment and other complications lead to respiratory failure. If left untreated, death occurs around 20th year of life, usually due to cardiac or respiratory causes. Respiratory insufficiency development is treated by mechanical ventilation support.

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Management of breast cancer

Author: Martina Vidová Uğurbaş, Lucia Sukovská Lakyová

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Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among them worldwide. It includes a heterogeneous collection of diseases with various histologically defined subsets, clinical presentations, responses to treatment and outcomes. We describe a case of female patient with ductal breast carcinoma.

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Appendicitis acuta and Meckel diverticulum

Author: Martina Vidová Uğurbaş, Lucia Sukovská Lakyová

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Appendicitis is one of the most common reasons for surgery and emergency hospitalization due to acute abdominal pain. Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis and subsequent indication for surgery can prevent complications. Conversely, the surgeon´s decision to operate with the aim of avoiding the complications of a late surgical intervention in positive appendicitis cases leads to negative appendectomy in 10,5% of the cases.

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Acute abdomen - gallstone ileus

Author: Martina Vidová Uğurbaş, Lucia Sukovská Lakyová

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Gallstone ileus is an uncommon entity, which accounts for 1–4% of all presentations to hospital with small bowel obstruction and for up to 25% of all cases in patients over 65 years of age. Despite medical advances, gallstone ileus is still associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The management of gallstone ileus remains controversial. The clinical signs and symptoms of gallstone ileus are usually non-specific, contributing to a delay in diagnosis. We present our case admitted to the hospital with gallstone ileus.

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Journey of a swallowed wooden stick to the liver

Author: Martina Vidová Uğurbaş, Lucia Sukovská Lakyová

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Hepatic abscess due to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract caused by ingested foreign bodies is a rare complication. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult because of negative anamnesis of the accident and symptoms are usually non-specific. Problems can occur after months or even years after incident. CT is the most suitable imaging method for diagnostic.
The authors report a case of 57 year old man who was admitted with liver abscess, who underwent surgery mid-year after swallowing of wooden stick.

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Management of pilonidal sinus

Author: Martina Vidová Uğurbaş, Lucia Sukovská Lakyová

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A pilonidal sinus is a sinus track which commonly contains hair. It occurs under the skin between the buttocks at a short distance above the anus. Most cases occur in young male adults. The most commonly used therapy is surgery including incisions, marsupialization, primary midline closure and skin flaps. We present two cases treated with different surgical techniques.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus with multiple organ complications

Author: Katarína Demková

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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease, mostly with a chronic course, that can affect almost all important organs, most commonly skin, joints, heart and vessels, kidneys, central nervous system and lungs. The disease is characterized by B-lymphocyte hyperactivity, which leads to the formation of autoantibodies predominantly directed against non-specific antigens. This case study describes a case of SLE with multiple organ complications in a 29-year-old female patient.

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Parainfectious myocarditis

Author: Katarína Demková

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Myocarditis is an acute inflammatory condition that can have an infectious, toxic or autoimmune aetiology. Myocarditis can complicate many infections in which inflammation may be due directly to infection of the myocardium or the effects of circulating toxins. The clinical picture ranges from a symptomless disorder, sometimes recognised by the presence of an inappropriate tachycardia or abnormal ECG, to fulminant heart failure. Myocarditis may be heralded by an influenza-like illness. In most patients, the disease is self-limiting and the immediate prognosis is excellent. However, death may occur due to a ventricular arrhythmia or rapidly progressive heart failure. Myocarditis has been reported as a cause of sudden and unexpected death in young athletes. Some forms of myocarditis may lead to chronic low-grade myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy. The case report describes a case of parainfectious myocarditis in a 20-year-old patient.

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Morbus Crouzon and severe Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

Author: Ivana Trojová

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Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder that affects 2% of female and 4% of male population. The major risk factors for OSA is obesity. Less common causes of OSA may be various congenital craniofacial anomalies. The presented case report has introduced an adult male patient with Crouzon syndrome (CS), rare genetic disease leading to craniofacial deformities, who was referred to sleep laboratory with the suspicion of sleep disordered breathing.

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Mitral valve replacement and MAZE procedure because of mitral valve stenosis and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

Author: Tomáš Toporcer

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The case report describes the hospitalization of a 63-year-old patient admitted to the Department of heart surgery for mitral valve stenosis with diagnosed atrial fibrillation. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement and MAZE procedure. At the postoperative period, paroxysm of atrial fibrillation was successfully detected with a successful version. On the tenth postoperative day, the patient was placed in outpatient care.

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