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Total atelectasis of the right lung due to bronchogenic carcinoma

Total atelectasis of the right lung due to bronchogenic carcinoma

Despite the emerging developments in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer in recent years, it is still the most lethal among all cancers. Atelectasis is a common condition with lung cancer. Central bronchogenic tumors often induce atelectasis due to endobronchial obstruction but less frequently due to compression of tumor or pleural effusion. The presented case describes case of a patient, who was repeatedly admitted to the Department of Pneumology and Phtiseology due to bronchogenic carcinoma with the future release of it´s complications including obstructive atelectasis of the right lung.

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author: Ivana Trojová | discipline: Oncology, Radiation Therapy, Respiratory Medicine | published on: 23.12.2017 | last modified on: 30.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection

A breach in the integrity of the aortic wall allows arterial blood to enter the media, which is then split into two layers, creating a “false lumen“ alongside the existing or “true lumen“. The primary event is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima of the aorta. Disease of the aorta and hypertension are the most important aetiological factors. The aortic dissection is a relatively rare condition, but it may rupture and have fatal consequences. The case report describes a dissection of the descending aorta in a 55-year-old patient.

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author: Katarína Demková, Jana Grofčíková | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | published on: 1.1.2018 | last modified on: 30.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Posterior wall myocardial infarction

Posterior wall myocardial infarction

Isolated posterior myocardial infarction is occurring in 3-11% of all infarctions. ST - segment depression in leads V1-V3 suggests myocardial ischaemia, especially when the terminal T - wave is positive (ST - segment elevation equivalent), and confirmation by concomitant ST-segment elevation ≥ 0,5mm recorded in leads V7-V9 should be considered as a mean to identify posterior myocardial infarction. Emergent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention of the infarct - related artery is indicated.

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author: Marianna Vachalcová | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | published on: 8.12.2017 | last modified on: 30.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Cardiac tamponade due to cardiac metastases

Cardiac tamponade due to cardiac metastases

Cardiac tamponade is a clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of fluid or gas in the pericardial space, resulting in reduced ventricular filling and therefore decreased cardiac output (Figure 1). The condition is a medical emergency with resultant cardiogenic shock and death if not treated immediately. The presented case report describes a 63-year-old oncological patient who developed cardiac tamponade with the need of pericardiocentesis.

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author: Ivana Trojová | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | published on: 4.12.2017 | last modified on: 30.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Pleuropneumonia

Pleuropneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious public health concern and a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite advances in antimicrobial therapies, microbiological diagnostic tests and prevention measures, pneumonia remains the main cause of death from infectious disease in the world. An important reason for the increased global mortality is the impact of pneumonia on chronic diseases, along with the increasing age of the population and the virulence factors of the causative microorganism.
In 2013, the Global Burden of Disease Study based on data from 188 countries around the world, reported that lower respiratory tract infection was the second most common cause of death. In Europe, mortality rates for CAP vary widely from country to country, ranging from <1% to 48%.

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author: Ivana Paraničová | discipline: Internal Medicine, Respiratory Medicine | published on: 1.1.2018 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Autoimmune hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic hepatitis associated with hypergammaglobulinaemia and the presence of circulating autoantibodies. In most cases it responds favorably to immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnosis is challenging, in general, all other possible causes of chronic hepatitis should be excluded. The case report describes a case of type 1 autoimmune hepatitis in a 69-year-old patient.

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author: Katarína Demková | discipline: Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Internal Medicine | published on: 2.1.2018 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is defined as the combined presence of obesity (BMI > 30kg/m2) with awake arterial hypercapnia (pCO2 > 6.0 kPa / 45 mmHg) in the absence of other causes of hypoventilation. The exact prevalence of OHS in the general population remains unknown, and most prevalence data describe subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea, wherein its prevalence has been estimated to range from 10% to 38% in different groups. On the other hand, patients with OHS often suffer from sleep-related breathing disorders. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea may reach up to 90-95% in OHS patients.

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author: Ivana Paraničová | discipline: Internal Medicine, Respiratory Medicine | published on: 22.12.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Treatment of overjet by retraction of frontal teeth to temporary anchorage devices (TADs)

Treatment of overjet by retraction of frontal teeth to temporary anchorage devices (TADs)

Increased overjet may be caused by excessive proclination of upper incisors with prominent maxilla or on the other hand by microgenia or mandibular retrognathism. The first malocclusion is in adult patients usually corrected by extraction of first premolars and successive retraction of frontal teeth. The second malocclusion in adult patients is correctly treated with orthognathic surgery.
When treating with retraction of frontal teeth, it is essential to assess the amount of anchorage needed. If the movement of distal teeth mesially is restricted, the absolute anchorage secured by TADs is needed. TADs are placed into the bone in the right position. Closed coil springs are placed inbetween the frontal segment and TADs on each side, thus retracting frontal segment without any movement of posterior teeth.

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author: Renáta Urban, Vladimíra Schwartzova | discipline: Dentistry | published on: 31.12.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

A two stage non extraction treatment of distoocclusion with proclination of upper incisors (AII/1)

A two stage non extraction treatment of distoocclusion with proclination of upper incisors  (AII/1)

A two stage treatment of distoocclusion with proclination of upper incisors (AII/1) is very efficient in correctly indicated cases and the timing of the treatment is essential. During the growth spurt the removable functional appliance is placed in the mouth (in this case bionator) to provide the bite shift to AI class and to raise the deep bite by correctly trimmed functional appliance. The second phase of the treatment with fixed appliance is reduced and only the anomalies of the position of individual teeth are corrected.

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author: Renáta Urban, Vladimíra Schwartzova | discipline: Dentistry | published on: 31.12.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License

Combined orthodontic-surgical treatment of impacted teeth

Combined orthodontic-surgical treatment of impacted teeth

Impaction or impacted tooth is a tooth that didn’t erupt into its position in the right time of his physiological eruption, is covered by bone and requires treatment. After precisely locating the position of impacted tooth, the appropriate orthodontic appliance is adapted, the space for impacted tooth is created. With surgical exposure of the tooth, the crown is uncovered and eruption chain is adapted. The pull is activated by elastic thread or other auxiliaries such as Kilroy spring or Monkey hook, that help to move the tooth into required position.

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author: Renáta Urban, Vladimíra Schwartzova | discipline: Dentistry | published on: 31.12.2017 | last modified on: 16.4.2018 | Creative Commons License
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