In diagnostics of infectious diseases direct and indirect diagnostic methods are used. Direct diagnostics allows to visualize microorganisms as agents of infection, indirect diagnostics allows to detect reactions of the macroorganism to the presence of the microorganism. Indirect diagnostics is focused on cellular immunity (skin tests), in which specific antibodies are demonstrated by serological reactions. The lecture is devoted to the explanation of basic terms (antigen, antibody, serological reaction, its course, evaluation) and the classification of serological reactions, which are used in clinical microbiology in the diagnosis of infectious disease agents. An illustrative image or procedure, reaction principle and specific examples of use are available for individual reactions.
Serological reactions based on the reaction between antigen and antibody can be used directly in the detection, identification and quantification of microbial antigens in a clinical sample. They are mainly used for the identification of hard-to-isolate and non-cultivable microorganisms, but also as screening methods and methods of rapid preliminary diagnosis. They are also used for deeper identification of the antigenic structure of microorganisms, so-called serotyping. Indirect diagnosis of microorganisms as agents of infectious diseases is primarily based on the evidence of specific antibodies against them. The dynamics of the production of specific antibodies, individual isotypes and their combination (IgM, IgG, IgA) provides accurate information about the stage of the disease. The detection of antibodies is not limited to blood serum, other body fluids can also be tested (saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.).
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citation: Katarína Čurová: Serologic reactions. Multimedia support in the education of clinical and health care disciplines :: Portal of Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice Faculty of Medicine [online] , [cit. 22. 02. 2024]. Available from WWW: https://portal.lf.upjs.sk/articles.php?aid=501. ISSN 1337-7000.