RNA viruses

RNA are noncellular organisms with ribonucleic acid (RNA) in their genome. In most viruses, RNA is single-stranded (ssRNA). An exception is made by reoviruses, whose RNA is double-stranded (dsRNA).In addition, RNA is either segmented (the genome consists of several RNA segments) or unsegmented (one long strand of RNA). RNA viruses that have only a protein capsid on their surface are non-enveloped. RNA viruses, which in addition to the capsid have an additional envelope made of a bilayer of lipids and proteins and specific glycoproteins, are enveloped. The content of the lecture is the classification of RNA viruses and, for selected groups of RNA viruses, structure, replication in the host cell, pathogenicity, diseases, laboratory diagnostics, therapy and prevention are described.

Enveloped RNA viruses with segmented ssRNA include orthomyxoviruses (influenza virus), bunyaviruses (Hantavirus) and others. Enveloped RNA viruses with non-segmented ssRNA include paramyxoviruses (measles virus, mumps virus), rhabdoviruses (rabies virus) and others. A specific group of enveloped RNA viruses are retroviruses (HIV virus), which transcribe their genome from RNA to DNA using reverse transcriptase. Non-enveloped ssRNA viruses include picornaviruses (poliomyelitis virus, hepatitis A virus...) and others. Non-enveloped dsRNA viruses are reoviruses (rotavirus).

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