Enterobacteria are gramnegative, facultative anaerobic bacteria that are rod-shaped. They occur in the natural environment, many are part of the human intestinal microflora (intestinal microbiome). According to the current classification, they belong to the order Enterobacterales, which includes 7 families, 66 genera and many species. Bacteria of the genera Escherichia, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Morganella, Proteus, Providencia, Serratia, Pantoea, Yersinia, Cronobacer, Citrobacter, Plesiomonas, Hafnia, are important in human medicine. The content of the lecture is the classification and basic properties of enterobacteria, pathogenicity, clinical syndromes, laboratory diagnostics, therapy and prevention are described for the most important enterobacteria.

Many enterobacteria are classified as opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms that can cause diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract diseases and other extraintestinal diseases (respiratory tract diseases, central nervous system diseases, wound infections, sepsisSome of them are important nosocomial pathogens, causing nosocomial infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae, even belong to the ESKAPE group, which includes bacteria with problematic resistance to antimicrobial agents. The primary pathogenic enterobacteria are Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi (agents of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever), other zoopathogenic serotypes of Salmonella (agents of gastroenteritis), Shigella spp. (agent of bacillary dysentery), Yersinia pestis (agent of plague), Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersiania pseudotuberculosis (spôsagents of diarrhea) and shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (egent of hemorrhagic colitis).

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