doc. MUDr. Ivana Valočiková, ivana.valocikova(at)

Internal medicine 5 - lectures for students of General Medicine

Author: Ivana Valočiková, Macejová Želmíra, Lazúrová Ivica, Schroner Zbynek

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Investigation methods in nephrology.Nephrotic syndrome. Differential diagnosis of proteinuria.Acute renal failure. Dialysis. Chronic renal failure. Kidney transplantation. Tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Nephrolithiasis.Glomerular diseases. Glomerulonephritis.Investigation methods in rheumatology, Rheumatoid arthritis. Spondylarthropaties. Metabolic (crystal) induced arthropaties. Vasculitis . Systemic connective tissue diseases - SLE, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis. Sjogren syndrome. Immunity, autoimmunity. Imunodeficiency – hereditary and acquired. Allergy. Metabolic bone diseases. Fluid and electrolyte disorders.

Acid-based balance

Author: Ivana Valočiková

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Lecture for 5- year subject Internal Medicine 4. Basic knowledge of disorders of the internal environment, their cause, diagnosis and principles of treatment of metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis. Metabolic processes ► acid/base ACIDS from carbohydrates and fat metabolism (15-20 000 mmol of CO2 daily) CO2 + H2O ►H2CO3 ►(carbonic anhydrase) H + HCO3 H + Hb in RBC ►released with oxygenation in the alveoli ►reversed reaction – H2O + CO2 – exhaled in each breath.