RNA are noncellular organisms with ribonucleic acid (RNA) in their genome. In most viruses, RNA is single-stranded (ssRNA). An exception is made by reoviruses, whose RNA is double-stranded (dsRNA).In addition, RNA is either segmented (the genome consists of several RNA segments) or unsegmented (one long strand of RNA). RNA viruses that have only a protein capsid on their surface are non-enveloped. RNA viruses, which in addition to the capsid have an additional envelope made of a bilayer of lipids and proteins and specific glycoproteins, are enveloped. The content of the lecture is the classification of RNA viruses and, for selected groups of RNA viruses, structure, replication in the host cell, pathogenicity, diseases, laboratory diagnostics, therapy and prevention are described.
Enterobacteria are gramnegative, facultative anaerobic bacteria that are rod-shaped. They occur in the natural environment, many are part of the human intestinal microflora (intestinal microbiome). According to the current classification, they belong to the order Enterobacterales, which includes 7 families, 66 genera and many species. Bacteria of the genera Escherichia, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Morganella, Proteus, Providencia, Serratia, Pantoea, Yersinia, Cronobacer, Citrobacter, Plesiomonas, Hafnia, are important in human medicine. The content of the lecture is the classification and basic properties of enterobacteria, pathogenicity, clinical syndromes, laboratory diagnostics, therapy and prevention are described for the most important enterobacteria.